The softener consists of a bed of Ion exchange resins.  The raw water to be softened is passed through the resin bed in downward direction and in the process, the Ion exchange resins exchange sodium Ions for hardness forming calcium and magnesium ions present in raw water.  Thus all the calcium and magnesium salts present in water are converted to sodium salts, which does not form scale.  This process of softening of hard water continues till the ion exchange resins have no more sodium ions available for exchange.  Then the ion exchange resins are REGENERATED with sodium chloride (common salt) solution to replenish the sodium ions.  Thus the cycle of alternate softening and regeneration is continued.

Following equations illustrates the chemical reactions taking place in the ion exchange resin bed during softening and regeneration process.

1. WATER SOFTENING

| CaCl2            |
| MgCl2           |                                                              | NaCl       |                                                  | Ca ++ |
H20 | Ca(HCO3)2 |   +            R-Na+                   → H2o | NaHCO3 | + R –                                        |            |
| Mg(HCO3)2|                                                             | Na2 So4 |                                                   | Mg ++ |
| CaSO4 |

(Raw Water) + (Regenerated) → (Soft Water) + (Exhausted Resin)
Resin

2. REGENERATION

|Ca++ |                                                                                                                                       | CaCl2 |
R –     |           |   +       H2O(NaCl)                         →                   R- Na+ +                   H2O         |           |
|Mg++ |                                                                                                                                      | MgCl2 |

Exhausted    +    Sodium Chloride     →   Regenerated    + Waste Water to drain
Resin                  Salt solution                      Resin

Water softeners consist of a FRP / MS / MRL Pressure vessel fitted internally with top & bottom Distribution / collection system. The pressure vessel is filled with one charge of underbed material and Sodium Based Strong Acid Cation resin.

The unit is fitted with a set of frontal pipework comprising valve and hydraulic ejector.  The brine (salt solution) required for “REGENERATION” of softener is stored in a HDPE / FRP brine tank provided with the unit.  The brine is injected into softener by means of hydraulic ejector, which operates with a minimum operating pressure of 2.0 kg/cm2 .

One hardness test kit is provided with each softener to measure the treated water hardness.

DEION Offers Various capacities of Water Softeners starting from 0.1 m3/Hr. capacity up to 100 m3/Hr. Capacity and with Pressure Vessel Material of construction in FRP / MS / MSRL.